American Motors Automatic Transmissions & Suppliers

ABBREVIATIONS

JEEP: = Information known to concern Jeeps but most likely applies to all vehicles where applicable.
BW = Borg-Warner
GM = General Motors
2bbl = 2 Barrel Carburator
4bbl = 4 Barrel Carburator
HD (or hd) = Heavy-duty.




MODEL
DESIGNATION
OEM TRANSMISSION
TYPE
SPEED COOLING ENGINES YEARS
Hydramatic GM iron 4 oil/water 6 cyls 50-56
Flash-away   iron 4 oil/water 250/327 56-57
Ultramatic Packard iron 2 oil/water 320 55-56
M-8 BW iron 3 oil/water 196/250/287 57-66
M-10 BW iron 3 oil/water 327 57-66
M-11 BW iron 3 oil/water 343/360 67-71
M-11A BW iron 3 oil/water 290 4bbl 67-71
M-11B BW iron 3 oil/water 304/360 70-71
M-12 BW iron 3 oil/water 360/390/401 68-71
M-34 BW alum 3 air 232 57-65
M-35 BW alum 3 air 196 57-65
M-36 BW alum 3 air 199 66-69
M-37 BW alum 3 air 232 66-69
M-42 BW alum 3 oil/water 199 70-71
M-43 BW alum 3 oil/water 232 70-71
M-40 BW alum 3 oil/water 290 2bbl 67-69
M-44 BW alum 3 oil/water 304 70-71
TF-727 Chrysler alum 3 oil/water J258/X360/X401 * ** 72-87
TF-904 Chrysler alum 3 oil/water 121/150/232/258 72-87
TF-998 Chrysler alum 3 oil/water 258/304 72-87
TF-999 Chrysler alum 3 oil/water J232/J258 * 80-87
TH-400 GM alum 3 oil/water J232/J258/J304/J360/J401 *
Buick J350/J327/J230 *
65-79
* J in front of the cid means JEEP tranny.
** X in front of the cid means used in both passanger and JEEPs.




THE MODELS


Hydramatic | Flash-away | Ultramatic | M-8 | M-10 | M-11 | M-11A | M-11B | M-12 | M-34 | M-35 | M-36 | M-37 | M-40 | M-42 | M-43 | M-44 | TF-727 | TF-904 | TF-998 | TF-999 | TH400
HYDRAMATIC -
Hydramatic transmission was called Dual Range Hydramatic and it was available only on 6cyl Nash, Hudson, and Rambler cars 50-56.
Hydramatic was called the Flash-away starting '56. Gear ratios were: 3.96:1 - 2.55:1 - 1.55:1 - 1:1 & 4.30:1(R).
Hydramatic was built by GM and was used in 6 cyls for '54-'56 and during '57 this dual coupling automatic was available only on the 250/327 V-8 equipped cars. '57 6 cyl Ramblers had begun using B/W automatic. The 250-v8 was introduced in 1956 & the 327-v8 in 1957.
Hydramatic had the oil dipstick under the floor until 1954 and for '55-'57 it was moved under the hood.
Hydramatic was used in almost everything American car in the early '50s - even GMC M135 army trucks used in Korea. It was simply the best automatic available back then. A disastrous fire in the factory forced makers to develop their own autos and ended its reign.
Hydramatic copy was used by Rolls Royce into the mid '60s when they switched to the TH-400.
Hydramatic was also used by Jaguar in the late '50s and early '60s.


FLASH-AWAY -


ULTRAMATIC -
Ultramatic was built by Packard and used in Packard powered Hudsons, 2 speed with lock up torque convertor, water cooled, propably the worst transmission ever built.


M8 -
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.
M-8/10 were also used behind the 6 cyl prior to 62.


M10 -
M-1X was used in IH with AMC 6 cylinder engines as well.
M-1X has cast iron case which is the trick to being much stronger than the other series. The servo arms that hold the bands push againts the case. The inards in the cast iron units are much larger and stronger than those used in the aluminum case trannies and nothing interchanges.
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.
M-8/10 were also used behind the 6 cyl prior to 62.


M11 -
M-1X was used in IH with AMC 6 cylinder engines as well.
M-1X has cast iron case which is the trick to being much stronger than the other series. The servo arms that hold the bands push againts the case. The inards in the cast iron units are much larger and stronger than those used in the aluminum case trannies and nothing interchanges.
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.


M11A -
M-1X was used in IH with AMC 6 cylinder engines as well.
M-1X has cast iron case which is the trick to being much stronger than the other series. The servo arms that hold the bands push againts the case. The inards in the cast iron units are much larger and stronger than those used in the aluminum case trannies and nothing interchanges.
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.


M11B -
M-1X was used in IH with AMC 6 cylinder engines as well.
M-1X has cast iron case which is the trick to being much stronger than the other series. The servo arms that hold the bands push againts the case. The inards in the cast iron units are much larger and stronger than those used in the aluminum case trannies and nothing interchanges.
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.
M-11B has an oval shaped tag and the M12 is more square. Both have the model number stamped on them.
M-12 was used in '71 with 360cid but only along with 3:54:1 rear. All other ratios with 360cids got the M-11B


M12 -
M-1X was used in IH with AMC 6 cylinder engines as well.
M-8/10/11/12 series trans are all very similar to Ford-o-matic, Cruise-o-matic and the FMX, especially the older M8/10. Most internals swap between some of these trannies.
M-12 was used in '71 with 360cid but only along with 3:54:1 rear. All other ratios with 360cids got the M-11B
M-12 is the most heavy duty Borg-Warner tranny available, and it was used with all 390 and 401 engines.
M-12 used by Jaguar should be the same tranny as the one that was used by AMC with some exterior differences.


M34 -
M-3X transmissions are all air cooled via torque convertor.
M-5X is the improved version of the M-3X series (oil-water cooled,etc.) actually quite similar to M-4X series, which was only used by AMC. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X, M-5X, most internal parts (bands...) / repair kits interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X used by Saab is FWD, so none of the exterior parts interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-34/35 both have cable shift.
M-34/35 is also known in the industry as T35.


M35 -
M-3X transmissions are all air cooled via torque convertor.
M-5X is the improved version of the M-3X series (oil-water cooled,etc.) actually quite similar to M-4X series, which was only used by AMC. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X, M-5X, most internal parts (bands...) / repair kits interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X used by Saab is FWD, so none of the exterior parts interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-34/35 both have cable shift.
M-34/35 is also known in the industry as T35.
M-35 is prone to cable shift jamming, the cable should easily move with low force in and out an inch or so, or it won't shift right.
M-35 has both front and rear pump so it can be push/pull started (driveshaft turn the pump).
M-35 is prone to the rear band partially applying when it's not supposed to and wearing out the rear band. The fix for this is to drill a small hole (.020") thru the rear servo piston. This might work on other M-3X series trannies as well.
M-35 planetary gearset is a Ravigneaux type with primary and secondary sun gears, primary and secondary planet pinions and a ring gear.
M-35 rear servo is a pressure apply / spring release type. M-35 front servo is a pressure apply / pressure release type with unequal piston areas.
M-35 the clutch is oneway and located between the center support and the planet carrier.
M-35 front clutch is a multi-plate type which is engaged in all forward gears.
M-35 The rear clutch is similar in construction to the front clutch but with a large diamerter opiston and a coil type return spring.
M-35 can be beefed up by using BW-51 (Aussie Ford Falcon XF) valve body which changes the shift pattern to start in first gear and allows a partial-throttle change-down. Also hd clutch plates, hd clutch spring and hd raybestos bands are available for the same car. Also the 3rd and reverse drum can be replaced with a larger fitting unit from a late model BW-35/BW-65 and fitting flexibrake rather than fixed band (gives a much smoother shift).
M-35 and manual T-96 also have identical universal yokes.


M36 -
M-3X transmissions are all air cooled via torque convertor.
M-5X is the improved version of the M-3X series (oil-water cooled,etc.) actually quite similar to M-4X series, which was only used by AMC. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X, M-5X, most internal parts (bands...) / repair kits interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X used by Saab is FWD, so none of the exterior parts interchange. (See the interchange info below.)


M37 -
M-3X transmissions are all air cooled via torque convertor.
M-5X is the improved version of the M-3X series (oil-water cooled,etc.) actually quite similar to M-4X series, which was only used by AMC. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X, M-5X, most internal parts (bands...) / repair kits interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-3X used by Saab is FWD, so none of the exterior parts interchange. (See the interchange info below.)
M-37 has bosses on the case for oil cooler lines. These same ones are on the later oil/water-cooled trans. Inside there is a boss with a blind hole that accepts a tube that goes to the pump. The tube from the M-40 should fit the M-37 (and the fittings from the outside of the case.) On the M-37 the tube is straight and goes to the valve body where there is a ball and spring valve, and then right out into the pan. On the M-40 it pumps it through the cooler, then back to the inlet to the rear of the trans, which is just an open drain. The cooler is enough to stop passive draining.
M-37 the rear pump hole is just blocked off with an adapter plate. M-40 case might not be this way as it was recast and has a different dipstick location that is IN the case. The M-37 tube is hooked to the oil pan.
M-37 and manual T-96 have the same number of splines.
M-3X used in Early '70s Mitsubishis should be a pretty close match to AMC M-37 though the tail is different from AMC versions, thus different driveshaft.(See the interchange info below).


M4X series -
M-4X series were basically heavy-duty versions of M-37 with new oil/watercooling. Which means the oil flows thru the radiator and water coolsthe oil, and the oil cools the trannny.
M-4X series aren't real performance trannies even if they're more heavy duty than M-37. They were only used with the smallest V8s and shouldn't be confused with the M-1X series.
M-65 used by Jaguar should is basically the same as M-4X used by AMC with some exterior differences, and heavy-duty mods inside.


TF-727 -
TF-727/904/998 is a Chrysler tranny that was used for many years in all Chrysler products. The internals exchance easily, but the exterior is AMC only.
TF-727 is a very heavy duty transmission, can hold almost anything, but on the downside is very heavy, and this way inappropriate for drag racing use.
TF-727 was also available as a hd option in big cars with a 6 cyl. and Wagoneers with 6 cyl '80-'83 and Grand Wagoneers from '84-'87.
TF-727 was used in Jeeps from '80 - '92
TF-727 case is 16" long and 14 bolts hold in the pan Gear Ratios 2.45(1st) 1.45(2nd) 1.00(3rd)


TF-904 -
TF-727/904/998 is a Chrysler tranny that was used for many years in all Chrysler products. The internals exchance easily, but the exterior is AMC only.
TF-904 is light duty and was originally used with Chrysler 4 and 6 cyl engines starting 1960, some early 273 V8s also got this tranny. Also some mid-size Chryslers with 318 got this tranny.
TF-904 has 3 pinion planetaries and a single wrap rear band.
TF-904 was available with in 2 ratios, a wide ratio with four cylinder engines, a standard ratio 904 with sixes.
TF-904 uses the same output shaft and seal as the T-4 and T-5.


TF-909 -
TF-909 was used in Jeeps and is a 904 with a lock-up torque converter.


TF-998 -
TF-727/904/998 is a Chrysler tranny that was used for many years in all Chrysler products. The internals exchance easily, but the exterior is AMC only.
TF-998 was only used behind the 258 and only in the Eagle. All other 258s in cars got the TF-904
TF-998 was used in all 304s in cars starting from '72 except some heavy duty applications which got the TF-727.
TF-998 originally used with Chrysler small V8s (318).
TF-998 has a larger front servo, 4 pinion planetaries and a double warp rear band. This was the original lock up converter tranny.
TF-998/9 can be indentified from the 904 by the two external ribs on the case above the rear servo.


TF-999 -
TF-999 originally used with 360 Chryslers, possibly also in later FSJs.
TF-999 is same as 998 except for 5 plate front clutch, wider front band.
TF-998/9 can be indentified from the 904 by the two external ribs on the case above the rear servo.


TH-400 -
TH-400 is a GM transmission used in various GM V8s. Gear Ratios: 2.48 1.48 1.00 2.08(r)
TH-400 has two variations in output. Some were built to bolt to the Dana 20 transfer case and some were built to bolt to the BW 13-39 Quadra-Trac transfer case used during the 70s. These two versions are not compatible.
TH-400 factory adapter used on the Dana 20 version is light and prone to failure. The drive gear used with Dana 20 is not 6 spline, so you cannot bolt a Dana 18 to this transmission. The case is 24 1/2" long and 13 bolts hold in the pan.
TH-400 was used in CJs with the BW 13-39 transfer case from 1976-1979.
TH-400 was used in full sized Jeeps (SJs and J series pickups) from the late 60s until 1979.
TH-400 used in CJs and later SJ had the AMC engine bolt pattern.
TH-400 was used in the late 60s in SJs with the Buick 350, but it also had an adapter ring to connect the nailhead-style TH-400.
TH-400 was also used with Toronado OHC J230, but only in '65.
TH-400 used early with the AMC engines used an engine to transmission adapter.
TH-400 was used in all AMC Wagoneers.



BORG-WARNER INFO


IMPORTANT:
All BW air-cooled trannies, the cooling is supplied by a "shroud" made onto the torque convertor. The air inlet is on the passenger side of the bellhousing. Don't mess with this or remove any parts, as the tranny will overheat without this system working properly.

From '57 to '67 the BW automatic was called "Flash-O-Matic" and from '68-'71 it was called "Shift Command".
There was a change in the way the trans shifted that led to the later name change. Flash-O-Matic has L, D1, D2, N, R, P. D1 starts in first gear, D2 starts in second gear. They can also be manually shifted. Shift Command has the capability of manually shifting each gear, and is the now traditional L, 2, D, N, R, P. The idea of starting in second was to prevent excess wheel spin on slippery surfaces. These trannies could be manually shifted as well.
Most earlier transmissions were single range, L,D,N,R,P.
None of the BW trannies will shift down into Low unless speed is 25MPH or less, so there no real danger in manually shifting the tranny.
BW alum. automatics and the T-96 manual have the same spline and are the same length.



BORG-WARNER INTERCHANGE


Borg-Warners / Aisin-Warners were also found on other cars:
M-1X Jaguar (air cooled, pre '68)
M-1X Willys Jeep ('50s-'65)
M-1X (iron warners) IH ('50s-'71)
M-1X (iron warners) Postal Jeeps ('50s-'70s)
M-12 Jaguar XJ12/XKE ('68-'75)
M-3X Postal Jeeps ('50s-'70s)
M-3X Saab 900 (pre '85)
M-3X Datsun Bluebird (pre '77)
M-3X series Rover (V8, '70-'87)
M-35 Volvo (air cooled, '65-'75)
M-35 Mitsubishi/Hyundai ('71-'74)
M-4X Triumph (early '70s to early '80s)
M-51 Ford Australia Falcon XF V8 ('70s)
M-55 Volvo (same as M-35 but oil/water cooled, '75-'84)
M-55 Isuzu/LUV ('81-'87)
M-6X series Rover (V8, '70-'87)
M-6X Ford Australia Falcon XF V8 ('70s)
M-65 Jaguar XJ6 ('74-'82)
M-65 BMW ('74-'77)
Borg-Warner's Aisin-Warner (Japanese/European)
division supplied most non-US manufacturers
with trannies that were the same or very similar
as the US counterparts. So most parts interchange,
though externals may differ.